The Challenges Somalia faces are complex, multifaceted and differ from various political, social, and regional contexts. The strategy to address these challenges and effectively lead Somalia on a path of recovery, development and a durable peace, we must have: Focused and committed leadership, solid government structures to deliver basic services, people’s trust, mediation and community participation, sound civic dialogues, and good and friendly international relationships based on mutual respect.
In line with this background, the Federal Government of Somalia hereby presents its MANIFESTO to outline a public policy framework that shed light on the top most priority issues to alleviate the suffering of the citizens and lay a strong foundations for building reliable, transparent, accountable and functioning state institutions. The following policies in this MANIFESTO resolve around the following SIX PILLARS:
- Pillar One: Full Stability – Supremacy of the Law and Good Governance
The purpose of the policy of this Pillar is to establish legitimacy and the authority of the State of one Country, and on a Vision whereby the citizens become capable of maintaining their basic needs and trust their Government’s ability to deliver lasting peace and progress. Rule of LawThe absence of Rule of Law undermines the Legitimacy of the State. The Rule of Law emphasizes the Security Sector Reform and the Judiciary Reforms at local, regional and Federal levels. The reforms of these sectors (security and Judiciary) are the basic foundations for the Legitimacy of the Federal State. Legitimacy can be achieved by establishing and implementing effective rule of law,institutions and policies.
Equally important and with similar planning objectives, good governance and public finance management aims to deter corruption at all levels of government; rebuild the country and restore people’s trust and confidence in governance system and rule of law.
The goal is to provide safety and security to all Somali citizens, protecting Somali sovereignty and thereby contributing towards national and regional stability. To achieve this goal, the Federal Government of Somalia will require de-politicized, impartial, accountable, transparent, and professional security forces, including the military and police. The FGS recognizes the important and urgent need to translate these principles into practical programs in the organization and operations of its security forces. The FGS will work with the international partners to develop well trained, disciplined and capable Somali security forces that fully understand and respect human rights and rule of law. The FGS will seek a broader international assistance to ensure quality and sustainable security structures. Based on:
- Gradually build and properly finance a unified security force that enjoys the public confidence which is free from sectarian and or clan influence to preserve the public order and protect the people and their property throughout Somalia;
- Ensure the easy movement of goods, people and an unhindered access of the humanitarian services to the needy;
- Establish regional and district security committees that overlook the management of the area security particularly ensure the eradication of violence against women and the prevention of recruiting child soldiers in the security forces;
- Formulate a programme aimed to Disarming, disbanding and re-integration (DDR) of armed groups into national army and police;
- Create the enabling conditions for the development of programmes for the re-integration of militias and other armed groups with the help of the international communities by developing a credible, comprehensive and appropriately financed DDR for militias, drawing on international experience of other post-conflict situation;
- Uproot extremists and any other source of fear and intimidation including the use of violence to achieve political ends;
- Establish effective coast guards that eliminate piracy, illegal fishing and dumping waste into the Somali waters;
- Facilitate the disarmament and the demilitarization of the society;
- Secure the security of the national borders to avoid arms and human trafficking so that the stability of a greater Horn is realized;
- Create an enabling environment in building bridges that lead to a full social trust and genuine social reconciliation;
- Create adequate capacity for the security forces to respond to the threats facing the nation while facilitating the provision of an enabling environment for social and economic development system.
Building a justice system in post conflict Somalia is to make the people believe and trust the state and the statehood. The dysfunctions of the judiciary institutions have over time destroyed the confidence in the normal mechanism of justice and induced citizens to retort to corruption and other illicit means. Hence, by reforming it will act as a triggering effect for social reconciliation that will heal, elicit better memories of the past and built confidence and trust the judiciary system. The reforms will include:
- The legal framework as stipulated in the Draft Federal Constitution will be formulated fully in line with national and international obligations.
- Review all the existing Laws and tune with the prevailing conditions of post conflict Somalia;
- A comprehensive assessment of current police, judicial and penal institutions will be made in order to identify linkages, gaps, organizational and financial resources necessary to ensure effective enforcement of the rule of law,
- A comprehensive transitional justice, in the light of the post conflict Somalia, by utilising the traditional mechanism including the SHARI’A for smooth transition to theprevailing justice system;
- Establish an independent judiciary system that guarantees all citizen are equal in front of the Law with no culture of impunity,
- The administration of justice and the criminal system will be enforced in conformity with the international standards and with the support of the international communities,
- A review and reform of oversight procedures relating to detention and lack of due process will be carried out,
- Prisons will have sufficient and separate facilities for women and juveniles and those in pre-trail detention, and these will be in conformity with the international standards,
- Confidence building measures such as an amnesty program consistent with transitional justice norms, release of illegally held detainees and respect of human rights will be implemented,
C. Good governance and Public Finance Management:
In the post conflict Somalia, good governanceintends to build and sustain state institutions that can behave and deliver reasonably according to the expectations of the post conflict Somali people. The goal for the good governance is to develop a legal framework and build institutional capacity to deter corruption at all levels of government.
There is now an international recognition that corruption impedes economic development undermines stability and wears down trust in public institutions. Giving its mandate of fostering good governance and preventing the possibility of systematic corruption, the FSG supports setting international standards to carry out competent policies and build capacity in institutions while safeguarding public sector ethics, transparency and accountability. In short, the challenges are many, in order to overcome them and to move the country on a path of recovery, the FGS must have focused and committed leadership develop strong and just public policies, and establish and implement effective rule of law institutions and policies.
- Build compact and accountable state institutions that can perform and can act as a springboard for a bigger and comprehensive future state apparatuses;
- Review existing public finance laws and procedures and enact new ones where necessary;
- Promote budget transparency and strengthen Parliamentary oversight,
- Establishing credible reporting and disclosure procedures to enhance policy making and to facilitate accountability and public participation,
- Adopting comprehensive public procurement legislation and systems, by balancing efficiency with good international practices in budget execution,
- Undertake a public expenditure review to evaluate the quality of budget management, and to identify ways to improve these areas,
- Review of taxation and customs policy and procedures, with an aim to strengthen the FGS’s resources mobilization and promoting growth and private sector development.
- Build and legally empower the integrity organs of the state (Accountant general, Auditor general, prosecutor general) to ensure transparency of public dealings and working as independent, professional, technical and non-political bodies,
- Establish transparent civil service recruitment procedures that guarantees meritocracy, professionalism and integrity with solid code of conduct,
- Build administrative capacity at all junctures of public finance management at national and sub-national levels, by introducing a payroll management system that minimizes/eliminates the abuse of public funds,
- Establish systems and procedure for the privatization of the state owned properties to avoid personal gains that can undermine the public trust on state building efforts,
- Establish an independent anti-corruption commission to eradicate all forms of corruption including financial and administrative in order to build public trust on state institutions;
- Develop a national telecommunication strategy, policy and regulatory framework.
- Put in place an “ethical infrastructure “that not only provides guidance for good conduct but also administratively and legally punishes misconduct
II. Pillar Two: Economic Recovery – Livelihoods and Economic infrastructure
More than two decades of conflict and state collapse have created an unregulated economy where livelihoods became so fragile and vulnerable increasing an abject poverty that dehumanized the population. The Goal for economic reform is to create an enabling environment for investment, public and private, domestic and foreign, as a driver for sustainable and diversified and a solid economic growth and job creation.
- Encourage vocational development and the creation of gainful employment opportunities;
- Facilitate the recovery and development of the family income schemes that focuses on the women employment;
- Reconstructstrong national economy based on the principles of free market and private ownership;
- Create and enable environment for a market oriented, private sector driven, competitive and profitable agricultural sector sustained by an appropriate Government policy, institutional and infrastructure support,
- Encourage and support agricultural production to improves the food security, rural incomes, generate rural employment, diversify economic growth and protect the natural environment,
- Strengthen public support organizations through capacity building for agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectors development planning, monitoring, oversight, research, extension, pest and disease control, quality standard and certification,
- Rehabilitate basic economic infrastructure such as sea ports, airports, roads,irrigation system and energy;
- Eradicate poverty thorough the utilization of pro poor investment policies and systems;
- Introduce a policy framework that stimulates participation of civil society in the implementation and monitoring of reform and reconstruction programs.
III. Pillar Three: Peace Building- Social reconciliation through Building Bridges of Trust
More than two decades of prolonged state collapse caused social fragmentation that makes social reconciliation an important priority area of peace building. The goal of this pillar is to develop social safety nets in order to protect the most vulnerable.
- establish dialogue circles to facilitate social reconciliation at local and national levels;
- Strengthen the National Reconciliation Program to ensure to be implemented in its entirety through a politically consultative and iterative process.
- To ensure the progress of the national reconciliation process through all means available as a matter of priority,
- strengthen the local community council of elders and peace committees,
- Organize and mobilize Somalia’s social organizations in the process of reconciliations,
- Empower the traditional leaders to facilitate healing process of the past;
- Conduct public education and consultation campaigns to ensure broad participation and support for social reforms,
- Plan and implement reintegration of the refugee and IDP returnees in their homelands;
- Increase participation of women in public life and economic activity,
- Increase women participation in politics at decision making levels and their involvement in the democratization process as stipulated in the draft Federal Constitution,
- Ensure engagement of all stakeholders in the context of social and political reconciliations,
IV. Pillar Four: Service Delivery – Health, Education and Environment
Public service delivery has grounded in Somalia in early 1990s. Therefore, overcoming the resistance to deliver is huge and cumbersome task for nascent state institutions to emerge soon. The goal of this pillar is to invest in human capital to ensure sustainable development in the future by guaranteeing access to basic services, fundamental rights and freedoms based on consensus and social peace.
- Build health system that guarantees primary health care to all citizens;
- Improve public health to eliminate the threat of infectious disease;
- Establish and empower a national quality control mechanism particularly the food and the medicines;
- Facilitate and support all national and international organization that contributes the health services delivery particularly to the poor and increase spending on health,
- Designing and developing educational philosophy and policy that preserves the national identity as a base for a national curriculum that produces patriotic citizen;
- Ensure that all Somali children have full access to an appropriate educational facility and increase the overall education budget,
- Reduce and ultimately eradicate illiteracy among the Somali people;
- Establish technical and vocational training centers emphasizing the ICT;
- Strengthen public-private partnership for the provision of vocational and entrepreneurial training, supporting sustainable access to the job market for the mostvulnerable,
- Emphasize the development of the Koranic schools and the Shari’a education centers as part of the national education system;
- Produce programs to ensure access of housing to the poor’s,
- Enact laws that preserve and protect the environment;
- Incorporate the environmental education in the formal and the informal education system of the country;
- Rectify the environmental damages of the past such as reforestation and cleaning Somali seas;
- Address the needs of IDPs, refugees and returnees by enabling them to realize their potential as contributing members of the economic community,
- Build capacity of the government of the readiness, planning, coordination, and response to the humanitarian emergencies in coordination with the local governments and non-governmental organizations.
V. Pillar Five: International Relations–Building, collaborative relations and Polishing the National Image.
In the history of post conflict reconstruction, no country has ever recovered without the support of the international community and Somalia cannot be an exception. Hence, building diplomatic, economic and trade relations with the neighboring countries and the rest of the world is an utmost priority for the new Somalia. Hence, the focus of this pillar is to:
- Create an enabling environment where the international community can support the recovery and reconstruction process;
- Effectively contribute to a horn of Africa region that is free from conflict and race of military buildup;
- Build capacity across Ministries to negotiate and implement international treaties and agreements,
- Pass legislation and undertake other measures necessary to facilitate active participation in international treaties and organization,
- Promote the accession to existing International Conventions/Treaties/Protocols: ensure progress on signing/ratifying and reporting obligations.
- Continue to engage actively with the UN, EU,IDB, ADF, the IMF and the World Bank,
- Participate actively with the regional organizations IGAD, AU, OIC, Arab League,
- Work closely with the EU to accession of the EU/ACP Cotonou Agreement.
- Gradually build bilateral diplomatic relationship with donor countries,
- Institutionalize the relationship with Somali Diaspora so that they can effectively contribute in the reconstruction process;
- Develop mechanism for working with recognized non-governmental institutions and business organizations.
IV. Pillar Six: The Unity and the Integrity of the country through Reconciliation
Somalia is making the transition of the promise of a sovereign, unified, democratic and federal state, where all Somali citizens will live in dignity. Under extremely difficult and sensitive circumstances, the Federal Government of Somalia is pursuing this goal of: a sovereign, unified, federal, democratic Somalia integrated into the East Africa region and the World. To achieve this goals the FGS will follow the key requirements for the establishment of a stable state and coherent society, and reconciliation among different Somali stakeholders.
- Rejection and confrontation of all sorts of terrorism,
- Renunciation of violence against the regional states and between clans, and other social groups within Somalia,
- Respect for rule of laws, including human rights,
- Establishment of a sovereign, unified, democratic and federal Somalia,
- Institutionalization of domestic federalism as stipulated in the Draft Federal Constitution as consensus based process,
- Fair and equitable sharing of resources,
- Establishment of inclusive, legitimate and suitable political institutions,
- The FGS will continue the national reconciliation process in the liberated regions through all peaceful means available as a matter of priority,
- Establishment of interim administrations in the liberated regions through a politically consultative and iterative process with local stakeholders including minorities.
- Calls for rejecting violence in all its forms and commitment to resolve differences through political and constitutional means,
- Encourages all inclusive political process to build trust and reassure those who feel alienated from it.
- The FGS will continue and widen dialogues with all the Somalis to promote unity and national reconciliation, through genuine dialogues between parties skeptical about the unity,
- The FGS will ensure enactment of all necessary legislation noted in the draft Federal Constitution to enable its finalization.
- The FGS will actively seek to promote harmony and understanding with all of its neighbors. Somalia will neither permit its territory and resources to be not used against its interest, nor will it allow interference and intrusion in its own internal affairs, but welcome the mutually beneficial cooperation between Somalia and its neighbors in order to achieve regional stability.
- The FGS will work with regional, AMISOM and international partners to preserve Somalia’s integrity, secure its borders and fight terrorism (Al Shabaab),